Negotiation, Facilitation and Mediation:

Principles and Practices

21st. September 2011



Recognizing the Hidden Agendas in Everyday Negotiation


In this session we consider two readings on approaches to negotiation that are complementary and contrasting to GTY. Kolb and Williams provide a more substantial and detailed perspective on the principled approach to negotiation proposed by Fisher and Ury by focusing on the interactions and dynamics. They argue that negotiators have to give special attention to the negotiation about the process of negotiation, what they call the "shadow negotiation". We will be reading and discussing all of their book during the course. Craver emphasizes the importance of not using a single negotiating strategy and introduces three commonly encountered different negotiator styles: Competitive-Adversarial; Cooperative-Problem-Solver; and Competitive-Problem-Solver. Elements of GTY and Shadow Negotiation ideas are evident in his characterization of each of these. Our discussion of these two readings will begin the elaboration of your understanding of different approaches to negotiation that you will encounter in reading about it and in practicing it. We will continue to explore alternative perspectives on negotiation and associated facilitation and mediation throughout the term.


Kolb, D. and J. Williams. 2003. Everyday Negotiation: Navigating The Hidden Agendas in Bargaining. San Francisco: Josssey-Bass. pp. i-24.

Craver, C. 2002. The Intelligent Negotiator: What To Say, What To Do, and How To Get What You Want - Every Time pp. i-19. Negotiation Materials Site



  1. From The Shadow Negotiation: How Women Can Master the Hidden Agendas that Determine Bargaining Success (2000) To Everyday Negotiation: Navigating the Hidden Agendas in Bargaining (2003).
  2. William Ury, contributions by Kolb and Williams: (i) Hidden context; (ii) Hidden barriers; (iii) Hidden opportunities. What are these?
  3. Focus on the how instead of the what. How does this relate to meta-negotiation (GTY)? Process vs. substance (in planning)?
  4. Women's experiences of negotiation reveal they are not only "deal-making" but also "problem-solving". As in GTY, think of the deal as a series of trade-offs among many issues; orange flesh and peel; beyond defending rights to win-win (the mutual-gains approach).
  5. BUT what could make this exchange between the sisters much more complicated? Getting to yes is frequently much more complicated in practice than what might at first reading appear to be the case; hidden agendas have to be brought into the open.
  6. Beyond the substance, the process > the shadow negotiation > vigorous and effective advocacy and connection (GTY calls this the meta-negotiation; Kolb and Williams put much more emphasis on it and address it in specific detail.
  7. How do you like the sound of Craver's Intelligent Negotiator? Rituals? Deception? Settlement ranges? Emotional intelligence?
  8. How would you compare and contrast the three negotiator styles characterized by Craver? Competitive-Adversarial (Adversaries); Cooperative-Problem-Solver (Cooperators); and Competitive-Problem Solvers (Innovators).
  9. Follow-up: After class think about how these different styles relate to who you are and how you want to construct your role in the case study negotiating that you are creating. I encourage you to start using a journal to reflect on the style and strategy options and explore your ideas about how you want to proceed in the future, not only in the case study but in all aspects of your life.